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All-Night Vigil (vsenoshchnoye bdeniye)  a service of the Russian Orthodox Church that consists of Vespers, Matins, and the First Hour; in parish churches it is celebrated in the evenings before Divine Liturgy on Sundays and feasts; in monasteries the A. N. V. sometimes follows a somewhat different format. In musical terms, the A. N. V. includes a number of hymns of the Ordinary, between which are inserted hymns of the Proper sung according to the Tones from the Octoechos or belonging to a particular feast. At Vespers the hymns of the Ordinary include the introductory psalm "Bless the Lord, O my soul," "Blessed is the man," "Gladsome Light," and "Lord, now lettest Thou"; at Matins -- "Praise the name of the Lord" and the Great Doxology; and at First Hour -- "To You,the Victorious Leader"; there is also an unchanging scheme of litanies and other short responses. For different categories of the A. N. V. one can identify additional hymns of the Ordinary: e. g., at a resurrectional A. N. V. -- "Rejoice, O Virgin," the troparia evlogitaria "Blessed art Thou, O Lord," and "My soul magnifies the Lord," and at A. N. V.'s for the twelve great feasts -- the gradual antiphon in Tone 4, "From my youth." The above hymns were initially performed in various unison chants, then polyphonically, and in more recent times they have been set to music as cycles by such composers as Tchaikovsky, Arkhangelsky, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Panchenko, Nikolsky, Gretchaninoff, P. Chesnokov, Rebikov, Rachmaninoff, and others; individual hymns from the A. N. V. have been set by Lvovsky, Kastalsky, P. Chesnokov, Kompaneisky, Tolstiakov, and many others.

Antiphon  from the Greek, meaning "against a voice"; a refrain sung by the choir or the people to psalm verses sung by a soloist; by extension, a psalm or group of psalms accompanied by a refrain and concluding with "Glory to the Father...," e. g., the three daily antiphons at the Divine Liturgy (Pss. 91 [92], 92 [93], and 94 [95]), and the antiphon of the first kathisma at Great Vespers, "Blessed is the man." Each of the twenty kathismata of the Psalter is divided into three a. (refrains having fallen from use long ago). The Psalms of Typika and the Beatitudes, which in Russian usage have come to displace the ancient (daily) a. generally, are called "antiphons" but only improperly. In modern musical practice, hymns termed a. are no longer performed as antiphons: such hymns include the gradual antiphons, hymns in honor of the Holy Trinity that are sung at Matins before the reading of the Gospel, and the fifteen a. linking the Gospels at the Office of Matins of Holy Friday. In Orthodox musical parlance "antiphon" does not refer to alternate singing by two choirs.

Apolytikion   see troparion, dismissal

Avtomelon (samopodoben)   a term applied to certain hymns composed according to the principles of prosomoia, which bear a particularly close similarity to one another, often beginning and ending with the same words.

Beatitudes   the Commandments of Blessedness from the Gospel of Matthew (5:3-12) with the addition of Luke 23:42, which replace the third antiphon at Divine Liturgy. (All that remains from the antiphon is the entrance verse "Come, let us worship..." [Ps. 94 (95):6] with its refrain.) The term Beatitudes (or stichera at the Beatitudes) also refers to the troparia inserted between these verses according to the Typikon, a practice begun in Constantinople in the 12th century.

Bulgarian chant    one of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which came into use in Muscovite Russia in the mid-17th c. Since B. c. does not have a direct connection with the chant used in the Bulgarian Church, its Bulgarian origin has not been definitely established; it is possible that the term "Bulgarian chant" was first introduced in western Ukrainian chant codices in an effort to give new melodies a mark of legitimacy and canonicity. The melodies of B. c. are characterized by symmetrical rhythms and phrase structure, a clear sense of tonality, and exact repetitions of melodic phrases. B. c. does not contain melodies for all categories of liturgical hymns.

Canon   see kanon

Canticle    one of as many as fourteen Biblical and extra-Biblical odes originally gathered into an appendix to the Psalter to facilitate the singing of divine services; specifically, one of the scheme of nine canticles used at Matins by the Palestinian monks as the basis for the genre of liturgical poetry called the kanon. The nine c. are: 1. the Song of Moses (Exodus 15:1-19); 2. the Song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32:1-43); 3. the Prayer of Hannah (1 Kings [1 Samuel] 2:1-10); 4. the Prayer of Habbakuk (Habbakuk 3:1-19); 5. the Prayer of Isaiah (Isaiah 26:9-20); 6. the Prayer of Jonah (Jonah 2:3-10); 7. the Prayer of the Three Holy Youths (Daniel 3:26-56); 8. the Song of the Three Holy Youths (Daniel 3:57-88); 9. the Song of the Theotokos (Luke 1:46-55) and the Prayer of Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79) While they are prescribed to be sung at Matins before each respective ode of the kanon, in today's practice only the ninth c., "My soul magnifies the Lord," is sung.

Chant    a self-standing system of monody, characterized by a specific compendium of motives (popevki) and principles for organizing them into melodies. Russian church singing incorporates several c. The oldest and most complete of these is znamenny chant, which dates from the 12th century or earlier, and which contains melodies for all the hymns of the liturgical year. Other chants appeared later: demestvenny -- at the turn of the 15th-16th centuries, and put' -- at the end of the 15th c. The mid-17th c. saw the flourishing of Kievan, Greek, and Bulgarian c., which are simpler in melodic structure than znamenny chant. Modern-day terminology distinguishes between a chant and a melody (napev), a distinction that was not always made by pre-Revolutionary writers. (see melody)

Cherubic Hymn (Cherubicon)    the hymn that begins the Eucharistic portion of the Divine Liturgy and accompanies the great entrance, during which bread and wine are taken from the Table of Preparation and placed upon the Holy Table. During the great entrance the priest remembers the hierarchy of the Church, the civil authorities and all those present, after which "Amen" is sung, and the concluding verse of the hymn follows. (In concert performances it is customary to omit the exclamation and the "Amen.") At virtually all Liturgies of St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great the C. H. "Let us who mystically represent the Cherubim" is sung; the only exceptions are the Liturgy of Holy Thursday, when "Of Thy Mystical Supper" is sung, and the Liturgy of Holy Saturday, when "Let all mortal Fhesh keep silence" is sung. At the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts the C. H. is replaced by the hymn "Now the Powers of Heaven."

Choir     the term used in liturgical books to designate groups of singers that participate in the service. Commonly a right choir and a left choir are mentioned, i. e., groups that stand on the klirosy to the right and left of the iconostasis.

Common chant    a term used to identify simple melodies that are commonly known and widely used in the musical practice of a particular national Church, diocese, or region.

Communion Hymn (koinonikon or kinonikon)     the ancient refrain for the communion psalm (antiphon) today sung independently, often to a melismatic melody and with an ornate "Alleluia," immediately after "One is holy" at Divine Liturgy. Except in a few instances the text is a psalm verse.

Compline     a service of the Orthodox Church served after supper; there are two types: Little C., served daily, and Great C., which is served during fasts and on the eve of some major feasts, e. g., the Nativity of Christ, Theophany, and Annunciation. C. consists primarily of psalm readings and prayers.

Concerto    see sacred concerto

Court chant    compendium of liturgical melodies, taken, for the most part, from abbreviated Kievan, Greek, and Bulgarian chants, which became standard in the usage of the Imperial Court Chapel in St. Petersburg during the late 18th-early 19th centuries. Eventually, it was systematized and published, first in two voices by D. Bortniansky in 1815, then in four voices by A. Lvov in 1848, under the title The Common Book of Notated Singing used at the Imperial Court. Because C. c. is by its nature a compilation of several chants and is performed polyphonically, some scholars believe that the term "chant" should not be applied to it. On the other hand, it contains melodies in Tones for all categories of liturgical hymns, except for those that by the 19th c. were no longer sung at the Imperial Court and in many parish churches, but continued to be sung only in monasteries.

Daily Cycle    the cycle of liturgical services of the Orthodox Catholic Church, comprised of Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Matins, First Hour, Third Hour, Sixth Hour, and Ninth Hour; Divine Liturgy, though strictly speaking not part of the d. c., falls between Sixth and Ninth Hour. According to church tradition, the d. c. begins with Vespers, at sunset. The full d. c. is usually served in monasteries; in parish churches on Sundays and feast days the All-Night Vigil is served the previous evening, comprised of Vespers, Matins, and First Hour, and in the morning, the Divine Liturgy is served, preceded by Third and Sixth Hours.

Demestvenny Chant    one of the monophonic chants of the Russian Orthodox Church; first mentioned in a source dating from 1441, it flourished in the 17th c. Hymns performed in d. c. primarily belonged to solemn feast-day services and were marked by complexity of rhythm and freedom of melodic stucture. The hymns of d. c. did not follow the system of Eight Tones, which led some composers of the late 19th c., e. g. N. Kompaneisky, to apply the term "demestvenny" to sacred musical works intended for concert, as opposed to liturgical, performance.

Demestvenny Notation    a type of neumatic notation used in early Russian church singing for notating monophonic demestvenny chant.

Demestvenny Polyphony    a type of early Russian polyphony, dating from the 16th-17th c., that was contrapuntal in nature and characterized by a complex texture resulting from the relative rhythmic independence of the component voices.

Divine Liturgy    the central divine service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, the first portion of which centers on the reading of Scripture and common prayers, and the second portion, on the celebration of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. There are three main variants of the D. L.: the L. of St. Basil the Great, once the regular Sunday L., which is now served only ten times during the year; the L. of St. John Chrysostom, which is served on Sundays and feast-days whenever the L. of St. Basil is not served; and the L. of the Presanctified Gifts, which is served during Lent. The D. L. consists of psalms, hymns and prayers, between which are sung litanies and various other short responses. The major unchanging hymns of the Ordinary include: "Only-begotten Son," the Trisagion, the Cherubic Hymn, the Creed, "A mercy of peace," the Lord's Prayer, and "Let our mouths be filled"; in addition, the D. L. includes a number of hymns of the Proper, which pertain to the occasion being celebrated. Initially all these hymns were sung in unison chant, then in polyphony; in the 17th century cyclic compositions arose, known as "Sluzhby Bozhii." In more recent times complete cycles of hymns from the D. L., as well as individual hymns, were set to music by numerous composers, including Berezovsky, Bortniansky, Vedel, Turchaninov, Davydov, Aliab'yev, Tchaikovsky, Arkhangelsky, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Panchenko, Nikolsky, Gretchaninoff, P. Chesnokov, Rebikov, Rachmaninoff, Kastalsky, Kompaneisky, A. Chesnokov, Shvedoff, N. Tcherepnin, and others.

Doxastikon    a sticheron that is sung after the verse "Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit" at the end of a cycle of stichera at Vespers or Matins. After the d. another sticheron is sometimes sung with the verse "Both now, and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen." In the scheme of early Russian church singing, the d. of feast-day services were set apart by being set either to particularly complex and solemn chants (demestvenny, put', or great znamenny) or in polyphony. (101R)

Dvoznamennik (dvoyeznamennik, dvuznamennik) (lit. two-signed book)    a particular type of liturgical singing book, in which hymns were notated in two types of notation: square, and above it, znamenny. D's. began to appear in the second half of the 17th c., as the transition from znamenny to square notation was being made.

Eight Tones    a system of classifying liturgical poetry and melodies into eight categories, known as Tones. Derived originally from the Palestinian practice of singing Paschal hymns to a different melody (Tone) on each of the eight days of the feast, the E. T. came to be applied to eight week-long cycles of hymns. As early as the 6th c., these hymns were compiled into a book known as the Octoechos, which was systematized and edited in the 8th century by St. John of Damascus. While in the Greek and Roman Churches the system of E. T. is based largely upon differences between modes or scales, in the Russian Church the Tones are differentiated by groupings of characteristic melodic formulae (popevki). The system of E. T. governs the hymns of the Proper from the Octoechos, Festal Menaion, and the Triodia -- stichera, troparia, kontakia, kanons, prokeimena, gradual antiphons, and kathisma hymns -- as well as certain hymns of the Ordinary, e.g., "Lord, I Call" and "Gladsome Light" at Vespers, and "It Is Truly Fitting" and the "Alleluia" at the Divine Liturgy, which have been set to the E. T. of znamenny and other chants.

Ekphonesis    in a general sense, the chanted reading and exlamations of sacred text, which are used in the Orthodox Catholic Churches. In terms of melodic character, e. stands between psalmody, in which deviations from the main reciting tone occur only at the beginnings and endings of phrases, and singing proper, which has a well defined medodic and rhythmic form. In the liturgy, e. is used primarily for reading the Epistle, the Gospel, and Old Testament readings, as well as for the prayers pronounced by the priest and deacon. In the Russian Church, traditional patterns of e. were notated in early times by a special ekphonetic notation, and were also preserved in the oral tradition; traditional methods of e. have been preserved more completely among the Old Ritualists than elserwhere in the Church.

Entrance Hymn (Entrance Verse)    a brief hymn that accompanies the entrance of the clergy into the altar during the little entrance. At the Divine Liturgy on a day that is not a Great Feast, the e. h. consists of the verse "Come, let us worship and fall down before Christ," followed by the refrain "Save us, O Son of God...." The term "entance hymn" (or "processional") is also applied to the singing of "It is truly fitting" and other hymns during the entrance of a bishop into the church prior to the service.

Exapostilarion (Svetilen, lit. Hymn of Light)    a brief hymn, similar to a troparion, performed at Matins after the kanon. There are three types of e.: resurrectional, which follow the cycle of 11 resurrectional Gospel readings and Gospel stichera; festal, which pertain to the feast being celebrated; and trinitarian, which are sung at certain Lenten services.

Exclamation   a prayer said aloud by a priest or bishop, which in most instances is the conclusion of a longer prayer said in a softer voice; one of the forms of ekphonesis.

Festal Hymn to the Theotokos (Zadostoynik)    a hymn in honor of the Theotokos sung at the Divine Liturgy in place of "It is truly fitting" on the twelve great feasts and certain other feasts. Usually the ninth heirmos of the festal kanon is used for this purpose. The Liturgy of St. Basil the Great has its own special H. to the T., "All creation rejoices in You."

Festal Menaion     one of the liturgical chant books used in the Russian Orthodox Church, which contains the hymns of the Proper for the immovable great feasts. In the Russian Church the F. M. arose in the latter half of the 15th-early 16th centuries; the first printed edition of the F. M. with musical notation -- the "Prazdniki notnago peniya" -- was published in 1772 in square notation.

Festal Triodion (Pentecostarion)    one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which contains the hymns and prayers for the period from the Holy Pasch (Resurrection) through the Sunday of All Saints (the first Sunday after Pentecost). There are two types of F. T.: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, in which the texts are supplied with musical notation. The earliest notated versions of the F. T. in the Russian Church arose in the 12th c., as part of the so-called "Triodic Sticherarion." The first Russian printed edition of the F. T. with musical notation -- the "Pentikostarion, sirech' Piatidesiatnitsa" -- was published in 1772 in square notation.

Funeral Service     a service for the burial of the departed, which essentially consists of the Memorial Service with the addition of a Gospel reading, special stichera on the Beatitudes and certain other stichera.

Glas   see Tone

Golovshchik   the singer in an early Russian church singing ensemble whose role consisted of performing solo verses or the initial phrases of hymns.

Gospel stichera    see stichera, Gospel

Great Entrance    the solemn procession during the singing of the Cherubic Hymn at Divine Liturgy, in which the bread and wine are transferred from the Table of Preparation to the Holy Table. (see Cherubic Hymn)

Great Znamenny Chant    one of the varieties of znamenny chant which is characterized by richness of melodic content and an abundance of melismas. In the system of Russian church musical aesthetics, melodies of g. z. c. were used primarily at particularly solemn moments of the liturgy and on feast days. (see also little znamenny chant)

Greek Chant    one of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which became known in Muscovite Russia in the mid-17th c. The melodies of G. c. are characterized by syllabic structure, symmetry of rhythm and phrase construction, a strong tonal center, and the exact repetition of melodic phrases. The exact relationship of Russian G. c. to the singing of the Greek Church of that time has not yet been determined; some of its melodies resemble those of other Eastern Orthodox Churches (e.g., the Romanian). G. c. does not contain melodies for all categories of liturgical hymns.

Heirmologion or Irmologion    one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which contains the heirmoi for the entire year. There are two types of H.: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, in which the texts are supplied with musical notation. In the western Ukrainian and Byelorussian branches of the Orthodox Church the H. was a book that, in addition to heirmoi, contained the hymns of the Ordinary of Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy, as well as hymns from the Octoechos and various feast-day hymns. The first printed edition of a notated H. in Russia -- the "Irmologiy notnago peniya," in square notation, was published in 1772.

Heirmos or Irmos (pl. Heirmoi, Irmosi)    a hymn that stands as the first troparion in each ode of a kanon and serves as a thematic link between the Scriptural canticles and the feast being celebrated. In the Greek originals, the h. established the melodic and metric model used in subsequent stanzas of each ode.

Hexapsalmos    see Six Psalms

Hours    the shortest services in the daily cycle of Orthodox worship, which consist of the Trisagion, three psalms, the troparion and kontakion of the day and several additional prayers. First Hour is generally served as part of the All-Night Vigil, immediately after Matins; Third Hour is commonly served before the Divine Liturgy or, if the latter is not served, is read separately, around 9 o'clock in the morning; Sixth Hour is commonly served immediately after Third Hour before Divine Liturgy or, if the latter is not served, is read separately around midday; Ninth Hour is served at approximately 3 p. m. or directly before Vespers. The H. also take on several special forms: the so-called Royal Hours are served on the eves of the Nativity of Christ and the Theophany and Holy Friday, and comprise the First, Third, Sixth, and Ninth Hours in sequence with the addition of readings from Scripture; Lenten Hours, in which some extra prayers are added to the usual format; and Paschal Hours, which are sung before the beginning of the Paschal Divine Liturgy and consist of a number of sung troparia without psalms.

Hymn    in a general sense, any poetic song performed in the context of the liturgy; hymns may offerpraise or prayer to God, or may express dogmas and moral precepts, as well as describe and reflect upon historical and liturgical events. (2) specific doxological or devotional songs, e. g., the Thrice-Holy Hymn "Holy God," the "Cherubic Hymn," the evening hymn "Gladsome Light"

Hymn of degrees    see antiphon, gradual

Hymns of the Ordinary    hymns that do not change depending on the occasion being celebrated and thus constitute the fixed format of a given service (see All-Night Vigil, Divine Liturgy)

Hymns of the Proper   hymns that change depending on the day of the week or day of the year, i. e., troparia, kontakia, hypakoe, stichera, gradual antiphons, kathisma hymns, kanons, exapostilaria, prokeimena, and others. In the practice of the Russian Church, h. of the P. are for the most part performed "according to the Tones," i. e., using the melodies from one of the liturgical chants: znamenny, Kievan, Greek, Bulgarian or "Common."

HypakoŽ or ypakoŽ   a term probably of Palestinian origin that suggests a response and hence the formal and functional equivalent of Constantinople's troparion. H. are performed: (1) at Sunday Compline; (2) at Sunday Nocturns; (3) at Sunday Matins before the gradual antiphons and the reading of the Gospel; and (4) sometimes after the 3rd ode of the kanon, in place of the kathisma hymn.

Idiomelon (samoglasen)    a hymn that is not patterned on any other hymn in terms of either meter, content, or melody

Ikos    see oikos

Introductory psalm    Psalm 103 [104], "Bless the Lord, O my soul," which begins Vespers and, thereby, the liturgical cycle of each new day

Introit     see entrance hymn

Irmologiy (Irmolog, Irmoloy)   see Heirmologion

Irmos    see heirmos

Kanon    a hymn that consists most often of eight or nine, and more rarely, of four, three or two odes, pertaining to the occasion or saint that is being commemorated. Each ode consists of several stanzas or troparia; in the practice of the Russian Church, the first of these troparia, the heirmos, is sung, while the others are usually read. Each of the nine odes is patterned after a canticle from the Holy Scriptures, which relates to an Old Testament event that served as a type of a New Testament event. Full k.'s, as a rule, had nine odes, but the second ode soon fell from use. An incomplete k. is termed a tetraodion, triodion, or diodion, depending on whether it consists of four, three, or two odes.

Kant (pl. kanty or kanti)     a type of polyphonic extra-liturgical song, which was widespread in Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia in the 17th-18th centuries. Originally, k. were composed on religious texts (sacred or spiritual k.); in the 18th c., the subject matter came to include patriotic, everyday, and romantic themes. In musical terms, the k. is characterized by a 3-part texture, with parallel motion of the top two voices and a bass voice providing a harmonic foundation; and a four-square phrase structure, consisting, as a rule, of two to four lines of text with cadences between them; there are also 4-voice k. Some k. were adapted from Polish songs known as "kantyczki," from which the term "kant" is derived.

katabasia (katavasia)    the repetition of the heirmos of a given ode of the kanon or the singing of an heirmos from another kanon (according to the Typikon) after the last troparion of a given ode. The Greek word vkatabasia, which means "coming together" or "going down," refers to the joining of the two choirs in the center of the church to perform these hymns.

Kathisma (pl. kathismata or kathismas)    a division of the Psalter, originating in Palestinian usage: there are 20 k., each subdivided into three so-called antiphons. The prescriptions in the Typikon to read k. at designated moments of Vespers, Matins, and during Lent, at the Hours as well, reflect a predominantely monastic use.

Kathisma hymn (sessional hymn, sedalen)    a hymn sung immediately before or after readings during which one may sit, i. e., kathismata of the Psalter and various interpretations of Holy Scripture, lives of saints, histories of feasts (known as synaxaria)

Kievan chant    one of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which first developed in the southwestern region of Rus' as a variant of znamenny chant, and then spread to Muscovite Russia in the 17th c. Melodies of K. c. tend to be shorter and simpler rhythmically than znamenny melodies; distinctions between recitative-like and melismatic passages are more pronounced; and certain phrases of text are repeated, something that does not occur in the znamenny chants of Novgorodian and Muscovite singing masters. The melodies of K. c., for the most part, served as the basis for the so-called "Common" chant.

Kievan notation     see square notation

kliros (also krilos) (pl. klirosi)     (1) special areas, usually elevated, to the right and left sides of the iconostasis, where singers stand during the liturgy; (2) an ensemble of singers on the kliros (see choir)

Koinonikon    see Communion Hymn

Kondakar'    an early Russian liturgical chant book, which contained kontakia and other hymns notated in kontakarian notation and performed in the style of kondakarian singing. Five such k. have survived, dating from the early 12th to the early 13th centuries.

Kondakarian notation    one of the oldest types of musical notation in Kievan Rus', imported from Byzantium at the time Christianity was received. K. n. is found in collections of kontakia, known as Kondakari, from which it derives its name. K. n. is ideographic by nature, and consists of two rows of neumes above the line of text.

Kondakarian Singing     one of the types of liturgical singing that arose in Kievan Rus' following Byzantine models. K. s. was by nature quite melismatic and was performed in solo fashion by virtuoso singers, while the congregation sang refrains. It was used to perform kontakia, Communion Hymns, and select verses from the Psalms. K. s. and its notation fell from use in the 14th c., although some scholars, e. g., J. von Gardner, believe that certain elements of it survived in the demestvenny chant.

Kontakion (kondakion) (pl. kontakia)    in its original form, a hymn that consisted of a long homiletic series of stanzas called oikoi, usually numbering 24 (the length of the Greek alphabet). Each stanza ended with the same refrain. The greater number of the most ancient k. are ascribed to St. Roman the Melodist. In modern usage, for each liturgical occasion only the first stanza and a single oikos remain, sung after the sixth ode of the kanon at Matins, and occasionally after the third as well; in this abridged form the k. is also sung at the Divine Liturgy after the appointed troparia.

Kontsert     see sacred concerto

Krestobogorodichen     see stavrotheotokion

Kriuk notation    see neumatic notation

Leave-Taking of a Feast     the last day of the post-feast, on which the Typikon sometimes prescribes serving essentially the same service as on the first day of the feast

Lenten Triodion    one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which contains hymns and prayers proper to the period of Lent and Passion Week; the L. T. begins with the fourth Sunday before Lent -- the "Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee" -- and concludes with Holy Saturday. There are two types of L. T.: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, in which the texts are supplied with musical notation. The earliest notated versions of the L. T. in the Russian Church arose in the 12th c., as part of the so-called "Triodic Sticherarion." The first printed edition of a notated L. T. in Russia, entitled "Triodion, sirech' Tripesnets," was published in square notation in 1772. The name Triodion stems from the fact that many of the kanons in it contain only three odes.

Litany    any of a series of petitions said by the priest or deacon to which is sung in response a short prayer such as "Lord, have mercy" or "Grant it, O Lord" or "To Thee, O Lord." The Great Litany or Litany of Peace, which has approximately 10 petitions, is very ancient and represents the common prayer of all the faithful; the Little Litany, which consists of 3 petitions, is used primarily as a link between various hymns; the Augmented Litany is so called because of its oft-repeated threefold "Lord, have mercy"; the Litany of Supplication includes "Grant it, O Lord" as a response. There are also l.'s for the Departed, which include special petitions for the deceased, and various adaptations of the above for different occasions. L.'s are sung at the All-Night Vigil, the Divine Liturgy, and at various occasional services, such as memorials, weddings, baptisms, funerals, etc.

Little Entrance    a procession with the Gospel book during the first part of the Divine Liturgy, which begins during the third antiphon and concludes during the entrance hymn "Come, let us worship"

Little Znamenny Chant     one of the varieties of znamenny chant, characterized by brevity of melodic development and prevalence of recitative (see also great znamenny chant)

Liturgy     a word derived from the Greek word for "public service" or "common service." In a general sense, this term refers to any public Christian worship service. In the Orthodox Church it most frequently is used, in capitalized form, in reference to the Eucharist.

Lity (litiya)   (1) a festive procession to the narthex, accompanied by common penitential prayers with "Lord, have mercy" sung many times over. The l. is commonly served in the latter half of Great Vespers on the eve of great feasts. During the procession special stichera at the Lity are sung, which pertain to the occasion being celebrated. (2) a brief form of the Memorial Service, which consists of the Trisagion and troparia for the departed

Matins    the morning service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, which consists of sung and read troparia, psalms, kanons, stichera, and other hymns, as well as litanies (see also All-Night Vigil)

Melody    a term that refers to specific tunes or categories of tunes within a chant system, e. g., a "Solovetsk Monastery melody" or the "Greek chant troparion melody in the 1st Tone" (see also chant)

Memorial Service (Panikhida, Parastas)     a service commemorating the departed, which consists essentially of the Trisagion, troparia, and a kanon (usually in abridged form), as well as special prayers and litanies; structurally, it resembles the Matins service

Menaion   a liturgical book that contains services for every day of the liturgical year; usually comprises 12 volumes, one for each month. There is also a General Menaion, which contains services for various categories of saints, e. g., apostles, martyrs, hierarchs, etc. The M. exists in two forms: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, which also contains musical notation.

Moleben    see Prayer Service

Neumatic Notation     a general term used with reference to staffless musical notations (in Russia -- the znamenny, demestvenny, and put'), which were used to notate hymns by means of special ideographic signs (neumes), written above the verbal text

Nocturns     one of the lesser services in the daily cycle of Orthodox services, which is served before Matins; there are several varieties of N.: daily, Saturday, Sunday, and Paschal

Obikhod     one of the liturgical chant books of the Russian Orthodox Church, which developed in the second half of the 15th-early 16th centuries, and which contains the hymns of the Ordinary for Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy, as well as the main hymns of the Proper from the Octoechos, Heirmologion, and Festal Menaion. The first printed edition of the O., the "Obikhod notnago peniya," in square notation, was published in 1772. In the western Ukrainian branch of the Orthodox Church chant books having the contents of the O. were called "Irmologi."

Obychniy Chant     see "Common" chant

Octoechos    one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, of Palestinian origin, which contains the hymns of Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy that follow the eight-week-long cycle connected with the system of Eight Tones. These include: various sets of stichera (at "Lord, I call," aposticha, at the "Praises"), dismissal troparia, kontakia, kathisma hymns, prokeimena, and other elements of Sunday and daily services. The O. exists in two forms: a reader's version, which contains only the texts, and a singer's version, which also contains musical notation; the singer's O. contains only the hymns for resurrectional (Sunday) services and is, therefore, considerably shorter than the reader's O. In the Russian Church the singer's O. developed in the second half of the 15th - early 16th centuries; the first printed edition of the latter, the "Oktoikh notnago peniya, sirech' Osmoglasnik," in square notation, was published in 1772. It contains the aforementioned hymns in znamenny chant, as well as pattern melodies (prosomoia, podobny) that belong to each of the Eight Tones.

Ode    one of the component parts of a kanon, which consists of the heirmos and the troparia that follow it

Office of Holy Friday Matins     the service at which are read 12 Gospel readings relating the events of Christ's Passion, from the Mystical Supper to His death and burial; also known as the "service of the 12 Gospels"

Oikos or Ikos    a specially constructed stanza, in honor of a particular feast, which is sung, together with the kontakion,after the 6th ode of the kanon. The o. develops the ideas expressed in the kontakion and, as a rule, concludes with the same words as the kontakion.

Oktoikh (Osmoglasnik, Oktay)    see Octoechos

Old Ritualists (Old Believers)    a faction of clergy and laity of the Russian Orthodox Church that did not accept the church reforms instituted by Patriarch Nikon in the 1650s, and also protested against innovations in the customs and civic life of Russia. As a result of severe persecution, the O. R.'s settled in the frontier regions and also fled abroad. They may be divided into two major categories -- those having a hierarchy and a priesthood (popovtsy) and those that are priestless (bezpopovtsy); both groups comprise numerous factions and subgroups. For the most part, the O. R.'s did not embrace either polyphony or staff notation, but have continued to preserve the unison chants notated in staffless neumatic notation to this day.

Order of Service     the order for a given office, as prescribed in the Typikon; the ordo. In some cases -- the actual prayer and hymns that comprise a particular service, e. g., the "Order of Service for the Burial of a Priest"

Osmoglasiye    see Eight Tones

Osmoglasnik    (1) see Octoechos (2) a sticheron in which the modes or melodic formulae of all Eight Tones are used in succession, creating a type of melodic modulation

Panikhida (Parastas)     see Memorial Service

Partesny Singing (Partesny Polyphony)     a style of polyphonic singing, based on the Western European system of harmony and counterpoint, which arose in the early 17th c. in the Ukraine and in the mid-17th c. spread to Muscovite Russia. The leading theoretician and composer of that period, Nikolai Diletsky, distinguished two types of polyphony in p. s.: "natural" ("prostoyestestvennoye"), in which all the voices sang continuously and pronounced the words simultaneously, and "concerted" ("boritel'noye" or "kontsertovoye"), in which different groups of voices or different choirs sang in alternation and the imitative treatment of motives caused the text to be pronounced at different times. Works in the style of p. s. were composed on all manner of liturgical and non-liturgical (and in some instances, secular) texts, for vocal complements ranging from three voices (e. g., kanty) to polychoral concertos for 8, 12, 16, 24 (and in one known case -- 48) voices. The style of p. s. endured until the end of the 18th c.

Paschal Midnight Service    the complex of offices served on the first day of the Holy Pasch (Resurrection). The P. m. s. is preceded by the Paschal Nocturns, after which, at midnight, the Paschal procession of the Cross takes place; this is followed by Paschal Matins, Paschal Hours, and the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom.

Passion Service    an evening service, particularly widespread in the Ukraine and Byelorussia, served on Fridays of Lent, at which the Gospel accounts of Christ's suffering are read

Pattern Melody [technique] (Prosomoion, Podoben)    a compositional technique whereby several metrically identical strophes are performed to the same basic "pattern" melody. This device was used prominently in the kontakia of St. Romanos Melodos, in which subsequent stanzas were sung to the melody of the first kontakion; afterwards, certain hymns began to be used as metric and melodic models and were designated as "prosomoia," i. e., pattern melodies to which new hymns were to be performed. Although the Russians adopted both the principle of p. m.'s and the designations of specific models from the Greek Church, the disruption of metric patterns that resulted when the Greek texts were translated into Church Slavonic made it necessary for Russian composers to create their own indigenous p. m.'s, which were more recitative-like in character and capable of accommodating texts of varying syllabic structure. (see also avtomelon; idiomelon)

Pentecostarion    see Festal Triodion

Podoben     see pattern melody

Polyeleion    a hymn performed at Matins comprised of verses of Psalm 134 [135] and 135 [136] with the refrain "Alleluia." The term is derived from the Greek words poly" -- many and eleo" -- mercy, in view of the multifold repetition of the phrase "for His mercy endures forever." During the singing of the p. the clergy process to the middle of the church and all the lights in the temple are lit.

Popevka (pl. Popevki)     consistent melodic turns or formulae in early Russian church singing, which serve as the building blocks for melodies of znamenny and other chants. P. are classified according to Tones; each Tone is distinguished by p. that occur in it more frequently than in other Tones; some Tones have more p. than others. The basic p. of znamenny chant were collected in azbuki, known as kokizniki. There are also other categories of p. -- litsa and fity -- which were used as melodic ornaments in chants, but did not constitute their essential components.

Post-feast (Afterfeast)    a period of one to seven days (in case of the Pasch -- 40 days) following a greatfeast, which in some respects constitutes a continuation of the feast. During the p.-f. certain festal hymns continue to be sung.

Prayer Service (Moleben)    a service offered in response to a individual need or special occasion, e. g., illness, thanksgiving, the beginning of some task. The structure of the P. S. resembles Matins: essentially, it consists of the Trisagion, troparia, a Gospel reading, special prayers and litanies, and a kanon (usually in abridged form). Sometimes a P. S. is combined with a procession of the Cross.

Prazdniki    see Festal Menaion

Pre-feast    a period of one or several days prior to a great feast, which serves as a preparation for the celebration; during the p.-f. special hymns and prayers are prescribed.

Presanctified Gifts, Liturgy of the     a communion service joined to Vespers which is served on the Wednesdays and Fridays of Great Lent and on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of Passion Week; so called because the Holy Gifts for these communion services are consecrated at the Divine Liturgy of the preceding Sunday.

Procession of the Cross    a solemn procession of clergy and laity, at the head of which is carried the Holy Cross, banners, icons, etc. C. p. always occur at the end of the Matins of Holy Saturday (the "Burial of Christ") and on the Holy Pasch (Resurrection) at the beginning of the Paschal Midnight Service; besides those occasions, they are held on parish feast-days and on other solemn occasions, as determined by the priest-in-charge.

Processional     see entrance hymn

Prokeimenon (Prokimenon) (pl. Prokeimena)      a form of responsorial singing consisting of a psalm-verse refrain and, by extension -- the entire psalm and refrain; so called because in ancient Constantinopolitan usage the psalm-verse refrain was given before (pro) the text (keimenon) of the psalm. In the liturgy the p. can stand alone, as at Vespers, or be used in conjunction with readings from Scripture, where its original function was that of a prayerful and didactic respite from the rigors of attentive listening to Scripture. P. are sung on special melodies according to the Tones: after the reader intones the verse, the p. is repeated in sung fashion; then one or several other verses are chanted, and the p. is repeated after each one. Finally, half of the p. verse is read, while the singers conclude the second half, and the Scripture reading begins.

Prosomoion   see pattern melody [technique]

Psalm    an ancient Hebraic hymn that has, in various instances, a doxological, penitential, didactic, or messianic content. In many respects, psalms served as models for the composition of new Christian hymns, and also came to be incorporated as important elements into all forms of the Christian liturgy. Following Hebraic antecedents, the Christians developed various styles of performing psalms: psalmodic chanting by one or several singers, antiphonal singing by two singers or groups, and responsorially -- when a single singer chanted the verses of a p. and the congregation responded with a refrain. Some p.'s (or select verses) constitute hymns of the Ordinary in Orthodox services; others are hymns of the Proper for specific feasts.

Psalms of Typika    psalms 102 [103] and 145 [146], which, together with the Beatitudes, constitute the first part of Typika, a brief service of monastic origin. In current Russian practice Typika is served before the Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts, and the p. of T. and the Beatitudes generally replace the first, second, and third antiphons at Divine Liturgy.

Psalter     the book of the Bible that contains the 150 psalms, including the psalms of David, Moses, Asaph, the Levitic psalms, and others.

Put' (putevoy) chant    a variant of znamenny chant, found in MSS from the last quarter of the 15th c. onward. By the early 17th c. all categories of singers' books had been set in p. c.

Sacred Concerto     a piece of sacred music composed on a text that may be liturgical or non-liturgical (e. g., from the Psalms), which was sung after the Communion Hymn during the communion of the clergy at the Divine Liturgy. Sometimes hymns from other services, e. g., the All-Night Vigil, are sung as s. c.'s.

Samoglasen    see idiomelon

Samopodoben    see avtomelon

Sedalen    see kathisma hymn

Sessional hymn     see kathisma hymn

Six Psalms (Hexapsalmos)    the suite of six psalms read at the start of Matins: 3, 37 [38], 62 [63], 87 [88], 102 [103], and 142 [143]

Slavnik    see doxastikon

Square Notation (Square-Note Notation, Square Notes)     a five-line staff notation that replaced medieval neumatic notation in Russian church singing of the the second half of the 17th c. In its essential details, s. n. resembles the staff notation used in Western European sacred and secular music of the 16th-17th c. In the Russian Church, s. n. was first used in western Ukrainian Heirmologia written at the turn of the 17th c. Completely replacing staffless notation, s. n. was used in the printed liturgical chant books that began to be published by the Holy Synod in 1772, and continued to be used in chant books until 1917. In contrast to modern-day (round-note) musical notation, the notes of s. n. are square- and diamond-shaped and are written, as a rule, in alto clef.

Stavrotheotokion      a type of sticheron in which the Mother of God is described standing before the Cross and lamenting the suffering of Jesus Christ

Sticheron (pl. Stichera)     a term of Palestinian origin signifying a hymn of several (usually 8 to 12) lines, written (in the Greek original) in a specific meter. S., as a rule, are written in cycles devoted to a particular occasion or saint, and are performed in alternation with verses of various psalms. In liturgical books s. have a designation of Tone, and sometimes, a pattern melody, to which they are to be sung. The following cycles of s. may be identified: stichera on the Beatitudes, which are actually troparia taken from the 3rd and 6th odes of kanons, sung in alternation with the verses from the Gospel of St. Matthew (5:3-12); stichera at "Lord, I call", which are sung at Vespers following the initial verses of Psalm 140 [141], and are inserted after verses of Psalms 141 [142], 129 [130], or 116 [117], depending on the number of s. (between 4 and 10) specified in the Typikon; stichera at the Lity, which are sung during the procession of the clergy from the altar to the narthex and do not have any psalm verses associated with them; stichera aposticha, which are sung at Vespers following verses selected in accordance with the occasion being celebrated, and also at daily Matins after verses 16-18 of Psalm 88 [89]; stichera at the Praises, between 4 and 6 s., which are sung at the end of Matins, after Psalms 148, 149, and 150. There is also a special cycle of Resurrectional Gospel stichera, which correspond to the cycle of 11 Gospel readings at Sunday Matins and are sung after "Glory" following the stichera at the Praises. Besides s. that form specific cycles, there are also s. that stand alone at various services, e. g., stichera after Psalm 50, sung at Matins of the twelve major feasts, and other individual s. that take their name from their content: theotokia, in honor of the Theotokos; theotokia dogmatica, honoring the Theotokos and relating the dogma of Christ's two natures; anastasima, honoring the Resurrection, stavrotheotokia, which speak of the Theotokos at the Cross of Jesus; stavroanastasima, which speak of the Cross and the Resurrection; triadika, in honor of the Trinity; nekrosima, in honor of the departed; martyrika, in honor of martyrs.

Sticherarion     a liturgical chant book of the Orthodox Church, which contains stichera and other hymns of the Proper from the yearly cycle. S. varied in content: some contained only stichera of the twelve major feasts, others -- stichera from the Lenten and Festal Triodia, the Octoechos, or the Menaia. In time, the contents of the S. were distributed among other liturgical chant books; in Russia, only handwritten s. have survived. (119R)

Stolp Notation    see znamenny notation, neumatic notation

Strochny Singing     a type of polyphonic singing that developed in the Russian Orthodox Church in the 16th and 17th centuries. The polyphonic texture in s. s. is formed by the addition of a vocal line either above the basic chant, or below it, but most frequently, both above and below, forming a 3-voiced texture; the basic melody is termed the put', the melody above it -- the verkh, and the melody below -- the niz. There are also examples of 4-part s. s., in which the fourth voice is called the demestvo. In the history of Russian church singing, two basic types of s. s. developed: (1) znamenny polyphony, in which the movement of the voices basically follows the put', and (2) demestvenny polyphony, in which the voices have greater independence and variety of movement than in znamenny polyphony.

Svetilen    see exapostilarion

Theotokos (lit. God-Bearer)    the term used by the Orthodox Church for the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Jesus Christ

Theotokion (pl. Theotokia)    a hymn in honor of the Theotokos that usually concludes a cycle of stichera or troparia. There are several categories of t.: resurrectional theotokia, which are sung after "Glory...now and ever" at the end of the stichera aposticha; theotokia dogmatica, which are sung after "Both now and ever" at the end of the stichera at "Lord, I call" and contain dogmatic teaching concerning the incarnation and dual nature of Christ; and dismissal theotokia, daily and resurrectional, sung at the end of the dismissal troparia at the end of Vespers and at Matins after "The Lord is God."

Thrice-Holy    see Trisagion

Tone    a term that refers to either the sum total of melodic formulae (popevki) performed within a particular trichord or tetrachord of the ecclesiatical gamut (scale), or to a characteristic pattern of melodic phrases, within the framework of which a given church hymn is performed. The system of Orthodox church singing has eight such groupings, which form the system of Eight Tones.

Triodion    an incomplete kanon, which consists of three odes. The odes of a t. are based on the same 9 canticles of Scripture as those of a full kanon. The t. always includes the 8th and 9th odes, but these are preceded by one more ode: the 1st on Monday, the 2nd on Tuesday, the 3rd on Wednesday, the 4th on Thursday, the 5th on Friday, and the 6th and 7th on Saturday, forming a tetraodion. The t. are sung and read during the weekdays of Lent at Matins, during the period from Easter to Pentecost at Compline, and also during the pre-feasts of Christmas, Theophany, and Transfiguration.

Trisagion    (1) the hymn "Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us," which is sung at Divine Liturgy before the reading of the Apostle and Gospel. On certain feasts the T. is replaced by the verse "As many as have been baptized into Christ..." or "Before Thy Cross we bow down, O Master...." (2) the cycle of prayers that begins with the above words and includes the prayer "O Most Holy Trinity, have mercy on us..." and other brief sentences before the Lord's Prayer. In this form the T. is read at all the services of the daily cycle: Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Matins, and Hours, as well as at the beginning of private morning and evening prayers.

Troparion (pl. troparia)     a term of Constantinopolitan origin indicating a refrain (and thus the equivalent of the Palestinian hypakoe and the Roman antiphon), in the form of a poetic composition, as opposed to a Scriptural text. Originally, t. served as responses to psalm verses sung by the chanter, i. e., as antiphons. This basic function still holds today, but the term is commonly used with reference to the following three types of t.: (1) dismissal troparia (apolytikia, otpustitel'ny), i. e., resurrectional troparia, troparia of the feast, troparia of the day -- hymns that keynote the main theme of the occasion being celebrated on a given day, first sung before the dismissal at Vespers and then repeated throughout the services of the day -- at Matins, Compline, Hours, and at the Divine Liturgy after the little entrance; (2) troparia evlogitaria -- sets of several t., each preceded by the refrain "Blessed art Thou, O Lord," sung at ResurrectionalMatins after the 17th Kathisma and at the Matins of Holy Saturday; and (3) troparia of the kanon -- brief verses that follow the heirmos in each ode of the kanon. The verses read at the Matins of Holy Saturday with the verses of Psalm 118 [119] are also called t.

Twelve Great Feasts    after the Pasch (the "feast of feasts") the most important feasts of the Orthodox liturgical year. The t. g. f. are divided into movable feasts: the Entrance of the Lord into Jerusalem (the Sunday before the Pasch), the Ascension of the Lord (40 days after the Pasch), and Pentecost (the Descent of the Holy Spirit) (50 days after the Pasch); and immovable feasts: the Nativity of the Theotokos (8/21 Sept.), the Elevation of the Cross (14/27 Sept.), the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple (21 Nov./4 Dec.), the Nativity of Christ (25 Dec./Jan. 7), the Theophany (the Baptism of Christ) (6/19 Jan.), the Meeting of the Lord in the Temple (2/15 Feb.), the Annunciation (25 Mar./7 April), the Transfigurguration (6/19 Aug.); and the Dormition of the Theotokos (15/28 Aug.).

Typikon    a book that contains various rules of the monastic life, including instructions for celebrating divine services in the Orthodox Church throughout the entire year.

Ustav    a special type of handwriting used in ancient manuscripts, which consisted of straight, angular characters, approximating printed ones

Vespers    the evening service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, which includes the singing and reading of psalms, hymns, stichera, and troparia, as well as litanies and various prayers (see also All-Night Vigil)

Vigil    see All-Night Vigil

Zadostoynik     see festal Hymn to the Theotokos

Zaprichasten     see sacred concerto

Zautrenia     see Paschal midnight service

Znamenny Chant    one of the basic types of liturgical chant in the Russian Church from the time of its founding. Initially z. c. was monophonic, performed in unison; beginning with the mid-16th c. there is evidence for polyphonic performance of z. c., although only one voice continued to be notated in the MSS. The 17th c. saw the appearance of notated znamenny polyphony, in 2, 3, and 4 parts, written in score format in znamenny notation. In terms of melodic structure, z. c. is comprised of melodic formulae (popevki) -- kokizy, litsa, and fity -- which are organized according to Eight Tones.

Znamenny Notation (Stolp Notation, Neumatic Notation)    one of the basic chant notations used in the Russian Orthodox Church from the time of its origins. While in its initial form it was borrowed from Byzantium, z. n. underwent an evolutionary process in Ancient Rus', and towards the 15th-16th centuries lost its connection with Byzantine notations. Z. n. is ideographic in nature, i. e., it expresses the movement of the melody in terms of symbolic signs (znamyona, kriuki -- neumes) the meaning of which must be known to the singer in advance. In the course of the 17th c., z. n. was gradually displaced by square notation in the official Russian Orthodox Church, but continued to be used by the Old Ritualists.

This glossary is (c) 2004 P.S.A.L.M.  See http://www.orthodoxpsalm.org/resources/glossary/a-e.html