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All-Night Vigil (vsenoshchnoye
bdeniye) a service of the Russian Orthodox Church that consists
of Vespers, Matins, and the First Hour; in parish churches it is
celebrated in the evenings before Divine Liturgy on Sundays and feasts;
in monasteries the A. N. V. sometimes follows a somewhat different
format. In musical terms, the A. N. V. includes a number of hymns of
the Ordinary, between which are inserted hymns of the Proper sung
according to the Tones from the Octoechos or belonging to a particular
feast. At Vespers the hymns of the Ordinary include the introductory
psalm "Bless the Lord, O my soul," "Blessed is the man," "Gladsome
Light," and "Lord, now lettest Thou"; at Matins -- "Praise the name of
the Lord" and the Great Doxology; and at First Hour -- "To You,the
Victorious Leader"; there is also an unchanging scheme of litanies and
other short responses. For different categories of the A. N. V. one can
identify additional hymns of the Ordinary: e. g., at a resurrectional
A. N. V. -- "Rejoice, O Virgin," the troparia evlogitaria "Blessed art
Thou, O Lord," and "My soul magnifies the Lord," and at A. N. V.'s for
the twelve great feasts -- the gradual antiphon in Tone 4, "From my
youth." The above hymns were initially performed in various unison
chants, then polyphonically, and in more recent times they have been
set to music as cycles by such composers as Tchaikovsky, Arkhangelsky,
Ippolitov-Ivanov, Panchenko, Nikolsky, Gretchaninoff, P. Chesnokov,
Rebikov, Rachmaninoff, and others; individual hymns from the A. N. V.
have been set by Lvovsky, Kastalsky, P. Chesnokov, Kompaneisky,
Tolstiakov, and many others.
Antiphon from the Greek,
meaning "against a voice"; a refrain sung by the choir or the people to
psalm verses sung by a soloist; by extension, a psalm or group of
psalms accompanied by a refrain and concluding with "Glory to the
Father...," e. g., the three daily antiphons at the Divine Liturgy
(Pss. 91 , 92 , and 94 ), and the antiphon of the first
kathisma at Great Vespers, "Blessed is the man." Each of the twenty
kathismata of the Psalter is divided into three a. (refrains having
fallen from use long ago). The Psalms of Typika and the Beatitudes,
which in Russian usage have come to displace the ancient (daily) a.
generally, are called "antiphons" but only improperly. In modern
musical practice, hymns termed a. are no longer performed as antiphons:
such hymns include the gradual antiphons, hymns in honor of the Holy
Trinity that are sung at Matins before the reading of the Gospel, and
the fifteen a. linking the Gospels at the Office of Matins of Holy
Friday. In Orthodox musical parlance "antiphon" does not refer to
alternate singing by two choirs.
(samopodoben) a term applied to certain hymns composed
according to the principles of prosomoia, which bear a particularly
close similarity to one another, often beginning and ending with the
Commandments of Blessedness from the Gospel of Matthew (5:3-12) with
the addition of Luke 23:42, which replace the third antiphon at Divine
Liturgy. (All that remains from the antiphon is the entrance verse
"Come, let us worship..." [Ps. 94 (95):6] with its refrain.) The term
Beatitudes (or stichera at the Beatitudes) also refers to the troparia
inserted between these verses according to the Typikon, a practice
begun in Constantinople in the 12th century.
one of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which came
into use in Muscovite Russia in the mid-17th c. Since B. c. does not
have a direct connection with the chant used in the Bulgarian Church,
its Bulgarian origin has not been definitely established; it is
possible that the term "Bulgarian chant" was first introduced in
western Ukrainian chant codices in an effort to give new melodies a
mark of legitimacy and canonicity. The melodies of B. c. are
characterized by symmetrical rhythms and phrase structure, a clear
sense of tonality, and exact repetitions of melodic phrases. B. c. does
not contain melodies for all categories of liturgical hymns.
Canticle one of
as many as fourteen Biblical and extra-Biblical odes originally
gathered into an appendix to the Psalter to facilitate the singing of
divine services; specifically, one of the scheme of nine canticles used
at Matins by the Palestinian monks as the basis for the genre of
liturgical poetry called the kanon. The nine c. are: 1. the Song of
Moses (Exodus 15:1-19); 2. the Song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32:1-43); 3.
the Prayer of Hannah (1 Kings [1 Samuel] 2:1-10); 4. the Prayer of
Habbakuk (Habbakuk 3:1-19); 5. the Prayer of Isaiah (Isaiah 26:9-20);
6. the Prayer of Jonah (Jonah 2:3-10); 7. the Prayer of the Three Holy
Youths (Daniel 3:26-56); 8. the Song of the Three Holy Youths (Daniel
3:57-88); 9. the Song of the Theotokos (Luke 1:46-55) and the Prayer of
Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79) While they are prescribed to be sung at Matins
before each respective ode of the kanon, in today's practice only the
ninth c., "My soul magnifies the Lord," is sung.
self-standing system of monody, characterized by a specific compendium
of motives (popevki) and principles for organizing them into melodies.
Russian church singing incorporates several c. The oldest and most
complete of these is znamenny chant, which dates from the 12th century
or earlier, and which contains melodies for all the hymns of the
liturgical year. Other chants appeared later: demestvenny -- at the
turn of the 15th-16th centuries, and put' -- at the end of the 15th c.
The mid-17th c. saw the flourishing of Kievan, Greek, and Bulgarian c.,
which are simpler in melodic structure than znamenny chant. Modern-day
terminology distinguishes between a chant and a melody (napev), a
distinction that was not always made by pre-Revolutionary writers. (see
(Cherubicon) the hymn that begins the Eucharistic
portion of the Divine Liturgy and accompanies the great entrance,
during which bread and wine are taken from the Table of Preparation and
placed upon the Holy Table. During the great entrance the priest
remembers the hierarchy of the Church, the civil authorities and all
those present, after which "Amen" is sung, and the concluding verse of
the hymn follows. (In concert performances it is customary to omit the
exclamation and the "Amen.") At virtually all Liturgies of St. John
Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great the C. H. "Let us who mystically
represent the Cherubim" is sung; the only exceptions are the Liturgy of
Holy Thursday, when "Of Thy Mystical Supper" is sung, and the Liturgy
of Holy Saturday, when "Let all mortal Fhesh keep silence" is sung. At
the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts the C. H. is replaced by the
hymn "Now the Powers of Heaven."
term used in liturgical books to designate groups of singers that
participate in the service. Commonly a right choir and a left choir are
mentioned, i. e., groups that stand on the klirosy to the right and
left of the iconostasis.
Common chant a
term used to identify simple melodies that are commonly known and
widely used in the musical practice of a particular national Church,
diocese, or region.
Communion Hymn (koinonikon or
kinonikon) the ancient refrain for the
communion psalm (antiphon) today sung independently, often to a
melismatic melody and with an ornate "Alleluia," immediately after "One
is holy" at Divine Liturgy. Except in a few instances the text is a
service of the Orthodox Church served after supper; there are two
types: Little C., served daily, and Great C., which is served during
fasts and on the eve of some major feasts, e. g., the Nativity of
Christ, Theophany, and Annunciation. C. consists primarily of psalm
readings and prayers.
compendium of liturgical melodies, taken, for the most part, from
abbreviated Kievan, Greek, and Bulgarian chants, which became standard
in the usage of the Imperial Court Chapel in St. Petersburg during the
late 18th-early 19th centuries. Eventually, it was systematized and
published, first in two voices by D. Bortniansky in 1815, then in four
voices by A. Lvov in 1848, under the title The Common Book of Notated
Singing used at the Imperial Court. Because C. c. is by its nature a
compilation of several chants and is performed polyphonically, some
scholars believe that the term "chant" should not be applied to it. On
the other hand, it contains melodies in Tones for all categories of
liturgical hymns, except for those that by the 19th c. were no longer
sung at the Imperial Court and in many parish churches, but continued
to be sung only in monasteries.
Daily Cycle the
cycle of liturgical services of the Orthodox Catholic Church, comprised
of Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Matins, First Hour, Third Hour, Sixth
Hour, and Ninth Hour; Divine Liturgy, though strictly speaking not part
of the d. c., falls between Sixth and Ninth Hour. According to church
tradition, the d. c. begins with Vespers, at sunset. The full d. c. is
usually served in monasteries; in parish churches on Sundays and feast
days the All-Night Vigil is served the previous evening, comprised of
Vespers, Matins, and First Hour, and in the morning, the Divine Liturgy
is served, preceded by Third and Sixth Hours.
one of the monophonic chants of the Russian Orthodox Church; first
mentioned in a source dating from 1441, it flourished in the 17th c.
Hymns performed in d. c. primarily belonged to solemn feast-day
services and were marked by complexity of rhythm and freedom of melodic
stucture. The hymns of d. c. did not follow the system of Eight Tones,
which led some composers of the late 19th c., e. g. N. Kompaneisky, to
apply the term "demestvenny" to sacred musical works intended for
concert, as opposed to liturgical, performance.
a type of neumatic notation used in early Russian church singing for
notating monophonic demestvenny chant.
a type of early Russian polyphony, dating from the 16th-17th c., that
was contrapuntal in nature and characterized by a complex texture
resulting from the relative rhythmic independence of the component
the central divine service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, the first
portion of which centers on the reading of Scripture and common
prayers, and the second portion, on the celebration of the Sacrament of
the Eucharist. There are three main variants of the D. L.: the L. of
St. Basil the Great, once the regular Sunday L., which is now served
only ten times during the year; the L. of St. John Chrysostom, which is
served on Sundays and feast-days whenever the L. of St. Basil is not
served; and the L. of the Presanctified Gifts, which is served during
Lent. The D. L. consists of psalms, hymns and prayers, between which
are sung litanies and various other short responses. The major
unchanging hymns of the Ordinary include: "Only-begotten Son," the
Trisagion, the Cherubic Hymn, the Creed, "A mercy of peace," the Lord's
Prayer, and "Let our mouths be filled"; in addition, the D. L. includes
a number of hymns of the Proper, which pertain to the occasion being
celebrated. Initially all these hymns were sung in unison chant, then
in polyphony; in the 17th century cyclic compositions arose, known as
"Sluzhby Bozhii." In more recent times complete cycles of hymns from
the D. L., as well as individual hymns, were set to music by numerous
composers, including Berezovsky, Bortniansky, Vedel, Turchaninov,
Davydov, Aliab'yev, Tchaikovsky, Arkhangelsky, Ippolitov-Ivanov,
Panchenko, Nikolsky, Gretchaninoff, P. Chesnokov, Rebikov,
Rachmaninoff, Kastalsky, Kompaneisky, A. Chesnokov, Shvedoff, N.
Tcherepnin, and others.
sticheron that is sung after the verse "Glory to the Father, and to the
Son, and to the Holy Spirit" at the end of a cycle of stichera at
Vespers or Matins. After the d. another sticheron is sometimes sung
with the verse "Both now, and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen." In
the scheme of early Russian church singing, the d. of feast-day
services were set apart by being set either to particularly complex and
solemn chants (demestvenny, put', or great znamenny) or in polyphony.
dvuznamennik) (lit. two-signed book) a particular
type of liturgical singing book, in which hymns were notated in two
types of notation: square, and above it, znamenny. D's. began to appear
in the second half of the 17th c., as the transition from znamenny to
square notation was being made.
Eight Tones a
system of classifying liturgical poetry and melodies into eight
categories, known as Tones. Derived originally from the Palestinian
practice of singing Paschal hymns to a different melody (Tone) on each
of the eight days of the feast, the E. T. came to be applied to eight
week-long cycles of hymns. As early as the 6th c., these hymns were
compiled into a book known as the Octoechos, which was systematized and
edited in the 8th century by St. John of Damascus. While in the Greek
and Roman Churches the system of E. T. is based largely upon
differences between modes or scales, in the Russian Church the Tones
are differentiated by groupings of characteristic melodic formulae
(popevki). The system of E. T. governs the hymns of the Proper from the
Octoechos, Festal Menaion, and the Triodia -- stichera, troparia,
kontakia, kanons, prokeimena, gradual antiphons, and kathisma hymns --
as well as certain hymns of the Ordinary, e.g., "Lord, I Call" and
"Gladsome Light" at Vespers, and "It Is Truly Fitting" and the
"Alleluia" at the Divine Liturgy, which have been set to the E. T. of
znamenny and other chants.
Ekphonesis in a
general sense, the chanted reading and exlamations of sacred text,
which are used in the Orthodox Catholic Churches. In terms of melodic
character, e. stands between psalmody, in which deviations from the
main reciting tone occur only at the beginnings and endings of phrases,
and singing proper, which has a well defined medodic and rhythmic form.
In the liturgy, e. is used primarily for reading the Epistle, the
Gospel, and Old Testament readings, as well as for the prayers
pronounced by the priest and deacon. In the Russian Church, traditional
patterns of e. were notated in early times by a special ekphonetic
notation, and were also preserved in the oral tradition; traditional
methods of e. have been preserved more completely among the Old
Ritualists than elserwhere in the Church.
Entrance Hymn (Entrance
Verse) a brief hymn that accompanies the entrance of
the clergy into the altar during the little entrance. At the Divine
Liturgy on a day that is not a Great Feast, the e. h. consists of the
verse "Come, let us worship and fall down before Christ," followed by
the refrain "Save us, O Son of God...." The term "entance hymn" (or
"processional") is also applied to the singing of "It is truly fitting"
and other hymns during the entrance of a bishop into the church prior
to the service.
Exapostilarion (Svetilen, lit.
Hymn of Light) a brief hymn, similar to a troparion,
performed at Matins after the kanon. There are three types of e.:
resurrectional, which follow the cycle of 11 resurrectional Gospel
readings and Gospel stichera; festal, which pertain to the feast being
celebrated; and trinitarian, which are sung at certain Lenten services.
Exclamation a prayer
said aloud by a priest or bishop, which in most instances is the
conclusion of a longer prayer said in a softer voice; one of the forms
Festal Hymn to the Theotokos
(Zadostoynik) a hymn in honor of the Theotokos sung
at the Divine Liturgy in place of "It is truly fitting" on the twelve
great feasts and certain other feasts. Usually the ninth heirmos of the
festal kanon is used for this purpose. The Liturgy of St. Basil the
Great has its own special H. to the T., "All creation rejoices in You."
one of the liturgical chant books used in the Russian Orthodox Church,
which contains the hymns of the Proper for the immovable great feasts.
In the Russian Church the F. M. arose in the latter half of the
15th-early 16th centuries; the first printed edition of the F. M. with
musical notation -- the "Prazdniki notnago peniya" -- was published in
1772 in square notation.
(Pentecostarion) one of the basic liturgical books of
the Orthodox Church, which contains the hymns and prayers for the
period from the Holy Pasch (Resurrection) through the Sunday of All
Saints (the first Sunday after Pentecost). There are two types of F.
T.: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's
version, in which the texts are supplied with musical notation. The
earliest notated versions of the F. T. in the Russian Church arose in
the 12th c., as part of the so-called "Triodic Sticherarion." The first
Russian printed edition of the F. T. with musical notation -- the
"Pentikostarion, sirech' Piatidesiatnitsa" -- was published in 1772 in
a service for the burial of the departed, which essentially consists of
the Memorial Service with the addition of a Gospel reading, special
stichera on the Beatitudes and certain other stichera.
Glas see Tone
Golovshchik the singer
in an early Russian church singing ensemble whose role consisted of
performing solo verses or the initial phrases of hymns.
the solemn procession during the singing of the Cherubic Hymn at Divine
Liturgy, in which the bread and wine are transferred from the Table of
Preparation to the Holy Table. (see
Great Znamenny Chant
one of the varieties of znamenny chant which is characterized by
richness of melodic content and an abundance of melismas. In the system
of Russian church musical aesthetics, melodies of g. z. c. were used
primarily at particularly solemn moments of the liturgy and on feast
days. (see also
little znamenny chant)
Greek Chant one
of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which became
known in Muscovite Russia in the mid-17th c. The melodies of G. c. are
characterized by syllabic structure, symmetry of rhythm and phrase
construction, a strong tonal center, and the exact repetition of
melodic phrases. The exact relationship of Russian G. c. to the singing
of the Greek Church of that time has not yet been determined; some of
its melodies resemble those of other Eastern Orthodox Churches (e.g.,
the Romanian). G. c. does not contain melodies for all categories of
Heirmologion or Irmologion
one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which
contains the heirmoi for the entire year. There are two types of H.: a
reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's version, in
which the texts are supplied with musical notation. In the western
Ukrainian and Byelorussian branches of the Orthodox Church the H. was a
book that, in addition to heirmoi, contained the hymns of the Ordinary
of Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy, as well as hymns from the
Octoechos and various feast-day hymns. The first printed edition of a
notated H. in Russia -- the "Irmologiy notnago peniya," in square
notation, was published in 1772.
Heirmos or Irmos (pl. Heirmoi,
Irmosi) a hymn that stands as the first troparion in
each ode of a kanon and serves as a thematic link between the
Scriptural canticles and the feast being celebrated. In the Greek
originals, the h. established the melodic and metric model used in
subsequent stanzas of each ode.
shortest services in the daily cycle of Orthodox worship, which consist
of the Trisagion, three psalms, the troparion and kontakion of the day
and several additional prayers. First Hour is generally served as part
of the All-Night Vigil, immediately after Matins; Third Hour is
commonly served before the Divine Liturgy or, if the latter is not
served, is read separately, around 9 o'clock in the morning; Sixth Hour
is commonly served immediately after Third Hour before Divine Liturgy
or, if the latter is not served, is read separately around midday;
Ninth Hour is served at approximately 3 p. m. or directly before
Vespers. The H. also take on several special forms: the so-called Royal
Hours are served on the eves of the Nativity of Christ and the
Theophany and Holy Friday, and comprise the First, Third, Sixth, and
Ninth Hours in sequence with the addition of readings from Scripture;
Lenten Hours, in which some extra prayers are added to the usual
format; and Paschal Hours, which are sung before the beginning of the
Paschal Divine Liturgy and consist of a number of sung troparia without
Hymn in a
general sense, any poetic song performed in the context of the liturgy;
hymns may offerpraise or prayer to God, or may express dogmas and moral
precepts, as well as describe and reflect upon historical and
liturgical events. (2) specific doxological or devotional songs, e. g.,
the Thrice-Holy Hymn "Holy God," the "Cherubic Hymn," the evening hymn
Hymn of degrees see
Hymns of the Ordinary
hymns that do not change depending on the occasion being celebrated and
thus constitute the fixed format of a given service (see
Hymns of the Proper
hymns that change depending on the day of the week or day of the year,
i. e., troparia, kontakia, hypakoe, stichera, gradual antiphons,
kathisma hymns, kanons, exapostilaria, prokeimena, and others. In the
practice of the Russian Church, h. of the P. are for the most part
performed "according to the Tones," i. e., using the melodies from one
of the liturgical chants: znamenny, Kievan, Greek, Bulgarian or
HypakoŽ or ypakoŽ a
term probably of Palestinian origin that suggests a response and hence
the formal and functional equivalent of Constantinople's troparion. H.
are performed: (1) at Sunday Compline; (2) at Sunday Nocturns; (3) at
Sunday Matins before the gradual antiphons and the reading of the
Gospel; and (4) sometimes after the 3rd ode of the kanon, in place of
the kathisma hymn.
(samoglasen) a hymn that is not patterned on any
other hymn in terms of either meter, content, or melody
Psalm 103 , "Bless the Lord, O my soul," which begins Vespers and,
thereby, the liturgical cycle of each new day
Kanon a hymn
that consists most often of eight or nine, and more rarely, of four,
three or two odes, pertaining to the occasion or saint that is being
commemorated. Each ode consists of several stanzas or troparia; in the
practice of the Russian Church, the first of these troparia, the
heirmos, is sung, while the others are usually read. Each of the nine
odes is patterned after a canticle from the Holy Scriptures, which
relates to an Old Testament event that served as a type of a New
Testament event. Full k.'s, as a rule, had nine odes, but the second
ode soon fell from use. An incomplete k. is termed a tetraodion,
triodion, or diodion, depending on whether it consists of four, three,
or two odes.
Kant (pl. kanty or
kanti) a type of polyphonic extra-liturgical
song, which was widespread in Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia in
the 17th-18th centuries. Originally, k. were composed on religious
texts (sacred or spiritual k.); in the 18th c., the subject matter came
to include patriotic, everyday, and romantic themes. In musical terms,
the k. is characterized by a 3-part texture, with parallel motion of
the top two voices and a bass voice providing a harmonic foundation;
and a four-square phrase structure, consisting, as a rule, of two to
four lines of text with cadences between them; there are also 4-voice
k. Some k. were adapted from Polish songs known as "kantyczki," from
which the term "kant" is derived.
(katavasia) the repetition of the heirmos of a given
ode of the kanon or the singing of an heirmos from another kanon
(according to the Typikon) after the last troparion of a given ode. The
Greek word vkatabasia, which means "coming together" or "going down,"
refers to the joining of the two choirs in the center of the church to
perform these hymns.
Kathisma (pl. kathismata or
kathismas) a division of the Psalter, originating in
Palestinian usage: there are 20 k., each subdivided into three
so-called antiphons. The prescriptions in the Typikon to read k. at
designated moments of Vespers, Matins, and during Lent, at the Hours as
well, reflect a predominantely monastic use.
Kathisma hymn (sessional hymn,
sedalen) a hymn sung immediately before or after
readings during which one may sit, i. e., kathismata of the Psalter and
various interpretations of Holy Scripture, lives of saints, histories
of feasts (known as synaxaria)
Kievan chant one
of the liturgical chants of the Russian Orthodox Church, which first
developed in the southwestern region of Rus' as a variant of znamenny
chant, and then spread to Muscovite Russia in the 17th c. Melodies of
K. c. tend to be shorter and simpler rhythmically than znamenny
melodies; distinctions between recitative-like and melismatic passages
are more pronounced; and certain phrases of text are repeated,
something that does not occur in the znamenny chants of Novgorodian and
Muscovite singing masters. The melodies of K. c., for the most part,
served as the basis for the so-called "Common" chant.
kliros (also krilos) (pl.
klirosi) (1) special areas, usually elevated,
to the right and left sides of the iconostasis, where singers stand
during the liturgy; (2) an ensemble of singers on the kliros (see
early Russian liturgical chant book, which contained kontakia and other
hymns notated in kontakarian notation and performed in the style of
kondakarian singing. Five such k. have survived, dating from the early
12th to the early 13th centuries.
one of the oldest types of musical notation in Kievan Rus', imported
from Byzantium at the time Christianity was received. K. n. is found in
collections of kontakia, known as Kondakari, from which it derives its
name. K. n. is ideographic by nature, and consists of two rows of
neumes above the line of text.
one of the types of liturgical singing that arose in Kievan Rus'
following Byzantine models. K. s. was by nature quite melismatic and
was performed in solo fashion by virtuoso singers, while the
congregation sang refrains. It was used to perform kontakia, Communion
Hymns, and select verses from the Psalms. K. s. and its notation fell
from use in the 14th c., although some scholars, e. g., J. von Gardner,
believe that certain elements of it survived in the demestvenny chant.
Kontakion (kondakion) (pl.
kontakia) in its original form, a hymn that consisted
of a long homiletic series of stanzas called oikoi, usually numbering
24 (the length of the Greek alphabet). Each stanza ended with the same
refrain. The greater number of the most ancient k. are ascribed to St.
Roman the Melodist. In modern usage, for each liturgical occasion only
the first stanza and a single oikos remain, sung after the sixth ode of
the kanon at Matins, and occasionally after the third as well; in this
abridged form the k. is also sung at the Divine Liturgy after the
Leave-Taking of a Feast
the last day of the post-feast, on which the Typikon sometimes
prescribes serving essentially the same service as on the first day of
one of the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, which
contains hymns and prayers proper to the period of Lent and Passion
Week; the L. T. begins with the fourth Sunday before Lent -- the
"Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee" -- and concludes with Holy
Saturday. There are two types of L. T.: a reader's version, which
contains only texts, and a singer's version, in which the texts are
supplied with musical notation. The earliest notated versions of the L.
T. in the Russian Church arose in the 12th c., as part of the so-called
"Triodic Sticherarion." The first printed edition of a notated L. T. in
Russia, entitled "Triodion, sirech' Tripesnets," was published in
square notation in 1772. The name Triodion stems from the fact that
many of the kanons in it contain only three odes.
Litany any of a
series of petitions said by the priest or deacon to which is sung in
response a short prayer such as "Lord, have mercy" or "Grant it, O
Lord" or "To Thee, O Lord." The Great Litany or Litany of Peace, which
has approximately 10 petitions, is very ancient and represents the
common prayer of all the faithful; the Little Litany, which consists of
3 petitions, is used primarily as a link between various hymns; the
Augmented Litany is so called because of its oft-repeated threefold
"Lord, have mercy"; the Litany of Supplication includes "Grant it, O
Lord" as a response. There are also l.'s for the Departed, which
include special petitions for the deceased, and various adaptations of
the above for different occasions. L.'s are sung at the All-Night
Vigil, the Divine Liturgy, and at various occasional services, such as
memorials, weddings, baptisms, funerals, etc.
a procession with the Gospel book during the first part of the Divine
Liturgy, which begins during the third antiphon and concludes during
the entrance hymn "Come, let us worship"
Little Znamenny Chant
one of the varieties of znamenny chant, characterized by brevity of
melodic development and prevalence of recitative (see also
great znamenny chant)
word derived from the Greek word for "public service" or "common
service." In a general sense, this term refers to any public Christian
worship service. In the Orthodox Church it most frequently is used, in
capitalized form, in reference to the Eucharist.
Lity (litiya) (1) a
festive procession to the narthex, accompanied by common penitential
prayers with "Lord, have mercy" sung many times over. The l. is
commonly served in the latter half of Great Vespers on the eve of great
feasts. During the procession special stichera at the Lity are sung,
which pertain to the occasion being celebrated. (2) a brief form of the
Memorial Service, which consists of the Trisagion and troparia for the
morning service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, which consists of sung
and read troparia, psalms, kanons, stichera, and other hymns, as well
as litanies (see also
Melody a term
that refers to specific tunes or categories of tunes within a chant
system, e. g., a "Solovetsk Monastery melody" or the "Greek chant
troparion melody in the 1st Tone" (see also
Memorial Service (Panikhida,
Parastas) a service commemorating the departed,
which consists essentially of the Trisagion, troparia, and a kanon
(usually in abridged form), as well as special prayers and litanies;
structurally, it resembles the Matins service
Menaion a liturgical
book that contains services for every day of the liturgical year;
usually comprises 12 volumes, one for each month. There is also a
General Menaion, which contains services for various categories of
saints, e. g., apostles, martyrs, hierarchs, etc. The M. exists in two
forms: a reader's version, which contains only texts, and a singer's
version, which also contains musical notation.
a general term used with reference to staffless musical notations (in
Russia -- the znamenny, demestvenny, and put'), which were used to
notate hymns by means of special ideographic signs (neumes), written
above the verbal text
one of the lesser services in the daily cycle of Orthodox services,
which is served before Matins; there are several varieties of N.:
daily, Saturday, Sunday, and Paschal
one of the liturgical chant books of the Russian Orthodox Church, which
developed in the second half of the 15th-early 16th centuries, and
which contains the hymns of the Ordinary for Vespers, Matins, and
Divine Liturgy, as well as the main hymns of the Proper from the
Octoechos, Heirmologion, and Festal Menaion. The first printed edition
of the O., the "Obikhod notnago peniya," in square notation, was
published in 1772. In the western Ukrainian branch of the Orthodox
Church chant books having the contents of the O. were called "Irmologi."
Octoechos one of
the basic liturgical books of the Orthodox Church, of Palestinian
origin, which contains the hymns of Vespers, Matins, and Divine Liturgy
that follow the eight-week-long cycle connected with the system of
Eight Tones. These include: various sets of stichera (at "Lord, I
call," aposticha, at the "Praises"), dismissal troparia, kontakia,
kathisma hymns, prokeimena, and other elements of Sunday and daily
services. The O. exists in two forms: a reader's version, which
contains only the texts, and a singer's version, which also contains
musical notation; the singer's O. contains only the hymns for
resurrectional (Sunday) services and is, therefore, considerably
shorter than the reader's O. In the Russian Church the singer's O.
developed in the second half of the 15th - early 16th centuries; the
first printed edition of the latter, the "Oktoikh notnago peniya,
sirech' Osmoglasnik," in square notation, was published in 1772. It
contains the aforementioned hymns in znamenny chant, as well as pattern
melodies (prosomoia, podobny) that belong to each of the Eight Tones.
Ode one of the
component parts of a kanon, which consists of the heirmos and the
troparia that follow it
Office of Holy Friday Matins
the service at which are read 12 Gospel readings relating the events of
Christ's Passion, from the Mystical Supper to His death and burial;
also known as the "service of the 12 Gospels"
Oikos or Ikos a
specially constructed stanza, in honor of a particular feast, which is
sung, together with the kontakion,after the 6th ode of the kanon. The
o. develops the ideas expressed in the kontakion and, as a rule,
concludes with the same words as the kontakion.
Old Ritualists (Old
Believers) a faction of clergy and laity of the
Russian Orthodox Church that did not accept the church reforms
instituted by Patriarch Nikon in the 1650s, and also protested against
innovations in the customs and civic life of Russia. As a result of
severe persecution, the O. R.'s settled in the frontier regions and
also fled abroad. They may be divided into two major categories --
those having a hierarchy and a priesthood (popovtsy) and those that are
priestless (bezpopovtsy); both groups comprise numerous factions and
subgroups. For the most part, the O. R.'s did not embrace either
polyphony or staff notation, but have continued to preserve the unison
chants notated in staffless neumatic notation to this day.
Order of Service
the order for a given office, as prescribed in the Typikon; the ordo.
In some cases -- the actual prayer and hymns that comprise a particular
service, e. g., the "Order of Service for the Burial of a Priest"
Octoechos (2) a sticheron in which the modes or melodic formulae of
all Eight Tones are used in succession, creating a type of melodic
Partesny Singing (Partesny
Polyphony) a style of polyphonic singing, based
on the Western European system of harmony and counterpoint, which arose
in the early 17th c. in the Ukraine and in the mid-17th c. spread to
Muscovite Russia. The leading theoretician and composer of that period,
Nikolai Diletsky, distinguished two types of polyphony in p. s.:
"natural" ("prostoyestestvennoye"), in which all the voices sang
continuously and pronounced the words simultaneously, and "concerted"
("boritel'noye" or "kontsertovoye"), in which different groups of
voices or different choirs sang in alternation and the imitative
treatment of motives caused the text to be pronounced at different
times. Works in the style of p. s. were composed on all manner of
liturgical and non-liturgical (and in some instances, secular) texts,
for vocal complements ranging from three voices (e. g., kanty) to
polychoral concertos for 8, 12, 16, 24 (and in one known case -- 48)
voices. The style of p. s. endured until the end of the 18th c.
Paschal Midnight Service
the complex of offices served on the first day of the Holy Pasch
(Resurrection). The P. m. s. is preceded by the Paschal Nocturns, after
which, at midnight, the Paschal procession of the Cross takes place;
this is followed by Paschal Matins, Paschal Hours, and the Liturgy of
St. John Chrysostom.
an evening service, particularly widespread in the Ukraine and
Byelorussia, served on Fridays of Lent, at which the Gospel accounts of
Christ's suffering are read
Pattern Melody [technique]
(Prosomoion, Podoben) a compositional technique
whereby several metrically identical strophes are performed to the same
basic "pattern" melody. This device was used prominently in the
kontakia of St. Romanos Melodos, in which subsequent stanzas were sung
to the melody of the first kontakion; afterwards, certain hymns began
to be used as metric and melodic models and were designated as
"prosomoia," i. e., pattern melodies to which new hymns were to be
performed. Although the Russians adopted both the principle of p. m.'s
and the designations of specific models from the Greek Church, the
disruption of metric patterns that resulted when the Greek texts were
translated into Church Slavonic made it necessary for Russian composers
to create their own indigenous p. m.'s, which were more recitative-like
in character and capable of accommodating texts of varying syllabic
structure. (see also
hymn performed at Matins comprised of verses of Psalm 134  and 135
 with the refrain "Alleluia." The term is derived from the Greek
words poly" -- many and eleo" -- mercy, in view of the multifold
repetition of the phrase "for His mercy endures forever." During the
singing of the p. the clergy process to the middle of the church and
all the lights in the temple are lit.
Popevki) consistent melodic turns or formulae
in early Russian church singing, which serve as the building blocks for
melodies of znamenny and other chants. P. are classified according to
Tones; each Tone is distinguished by p. that occur in it more
frequently than in other Tones; some Tones have more p. than others.
The basic p. of znamenny chant were collected in azbuki, known as
kokizniki. There are also other categories of p. -- litsa and fity --
which were used as melodic ornaments in chants, but did not constitute
their essential components.
(Afterfeast) a period of one to seven days (in case
of the Pasch -- 40 days) following a greatfeast, which in some respects
constitutes a continuation of the feast. During the p.-f. certain
festal hymns continue to be sung.
(Moleben) a service offered in response to a
individual need or special occasion, e. g., illness, thanksgiving, the
beginning of some task. The structure of the P. S. resembles Matins:
essentially, it consists of the Trisagion, troparia, a Gospel reading,
special prayers and litanies, and a kanon (usually in abridged form).
Sometimes a P. S. is combined with a procession of the Cross.
period of one or several days prior to a great feast, which serves as a
preparation for the celebration; during the p.-f. special hymns and
prayers are prescribed.
Presanctified Gifts, Liturgy of the
a communion service joined to Vespers which is served on the Wednesdays
and Fridays of Great Lent and on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of
Passion Week; so called because the Holy Gifts for these communion
services are consecrated at the Divine Liturgy of the preceding Sunday.
Procession of the Cross
a solemn procession of clergy and laity, at the head of which is
carried the Holy Cross, banners, icons, etc. C. p. always occur at the
end of the Matins of Holy Saturday (the "Burial of Christ") and on the
Holy Pasch (Resurrection) at the beginning of the Paschal Midnight
Service; besides those occasions, they are held on parish feast-days
and on other solemn occasions, as determined by the priest-in-charge.
Prokeimenon (Prokimenon) (pl.
Prokeimena) a form of responsorial
singing consisting of a psalm-verse refrain and, by extension -- the
entire psalm and refrain; so called because in ancient
Constantinopolitan usage the psalm-verse refrain was given before (pro)
the text (keimenon) of the psalm. In the liturgy the p. can stand
alone, as at Vespers, or be used in conjunction with readings from
Scripture, where its original function was that of a prayerful and
didactic respite from the rigors of attentive listening to Scripture.
P. are sung on special melodies according to the Tones: after the
reader intones the verse, the p. is repeated in sung fashion; then one
or several other verses are chanted, and the p. is repeated after each
one. Finally, half of the p. verse is read, while the singers conclude
the second half, and the Scripture reading begins.
pattern melody [technique]
Psalm an ancient
Hebraic hymn that has, in various instances, a doxological,
penitential, didactic, or messianic content. In many respects, psalms
served as models for the composition of new Christian hymns, and also
came to be incorporated as important elements into all forms of the
Christian liturgy. Following Hebraic antecedents, the Christians
developed various styles of performing psalms: psalmodic chanting by
one or several singers, antiphonal singing by two singers or groups,
and responsorially -- when a single singer chanted the verses of a p.
and the congregation responded with a refrain. Some p.'s (or select
verses) constitute hymns of the Ordinary in Orthodox services; others
are hymns of the Proper for specific feasts.
Psalms of Typika
psalms 102  and 145 , which, together with the Beatitudes,
constitute the first part of Typika, a brief service of monastic
origin. In current Russian practice Typika is served before the Liturgy
of Presanctified Gifts, and the p. of T. and the Beatitudes generally
replace the first, second, and third antiphons at Divine Liturgy.
the book of the Bible that contains the 150 psalms, including the
psalms of David, Moses, Asaph, the Levitic psalms, and others.
Put' (putevoy) chant
a variant of znamenny chant, found in MSS from the last quarter of the
15th c. onward. By the early 17th c. all categories of singers' books
had been set in p. c.
a piece of sacred music composed on a text that may be liturgical or
non-liturgical (e. g., from the Psalms), which was sung after the
Communion Hymn during the communion of the clergy at the Divine
Liturgy. Sometimes hymns from other services, e. g., the All-Night
Vigil, are sung as s. c.'s.
(Hexapsalmos) the suite of six psalms read at the
start of Matins: 3, 37 , 62 , 87 , 102 , and 142 
Square Notation (Square-Note
Notation, Square Notes) a five-line staff
notation that replaced medieval neumatic notation in Russian church
singing of the the second half of the 17th c. In its essential details,
s. n. resembles the staff notation used in Western European sacred and
secular music of the 16th-17th c. In the Russian Church, s. n. was
first used in western Ukrainian Heirmologia written at the turn of the
17th c. Completely replacing staffless notation, s. n. was used in the
printed liturgical chant books that began to be published by the Holy
Synod in 1772, and continued to be used in chant books until 1917. In
contrast to modern-day (round-note) musical notation, the notes of s.
n. are square- and diamond-shaped and are written, as a rule, in alto
a type of sticheron in which the Mother of God is described standing
before the Cross and lamenting the suffering of Jesus Christ
Sticheron (pl. Stichera)
a term of Palestinian origin signifying a hymn of several (usually 8 to
12) lines, written (in the Greek original) in a specific meter. S., as
a rule, are written in cycles devoted to a particular occasion or
saint, and are performed in alternation with verses of various psalms.
In liturgical books s. have a designation of Tone, and sometimes, a
pattern melody, to which they are to be sung. The following cycles of
s. may be identified: stichera on the Beatitudes, which are actually
troparia taken from the 3rd and 6th odes of kanons, sung in alternation
with the verses from the Gospel of St. Matthew (5:3-12); stichera at
"Lord, I call", which are sung at Vespers following the initial verses
of Psalm 140 , and are inserted after verses of Psalms 141 ,
129 , or 116 , depending on the number of s. (between 4 and
10) specified in the Typikon; stichera at the Lity, which are sung
during the procession of the clergy from the altar to the narthex and
do not have any psalm verses associated with them; stichera aposticha,
which are sung at Vespers following verses selected in accordance with
the occasion being celebrated, and also at daily Matins after verses
16-18 of Psalm 88 ; stichera at the Praises, between 4 and 6 s.,
which are sung at the end of Matins, after Psalms 148, 149, and 150.
There is also a special cycle of Resurrectional Gospel stichera, which
correspond to the cycle of 11 Gospel readings at Sunday Matins and are
sung after "Glory" following the stichera at the Praises. Besides s.
that form specific cycles, there are also s. that stand alone at
various services, e. g., stichera after Psalm 50, sung at Matins of the
twelve major feasts, and other individual s. that take their name from
their content: theotokia, in honor of the Theotokos; theotokia
dogmatica, honoring the Theotokos and relating the dogma of Christ's
two natures; anastasima, honoring the Resurrection, stavrotheotokia,
which speak of the Theotokos at the Cross of Jesus; stavroanastasima,
which speak of the Cross and the Resurrection; triadika, in honor of
the Trinity; nekrosima, in honor of the departed; martyrika, in honor
a liturgical chant book of the Orthodox Church, which contains stichera
and other hymns of the Proper from the yearly cycle. S. varied in
content: some contained only stichera of the twelve major feasts,
others -- stichera from the Lenten and Festal Triodia, the Octoechos,
or the Menaia. In time, the contents of the S. were distributed among
other liturgical chant books; in Russia, only handwritten s. have
a type of polyphonic singing that developed in the Russian Orthodox
Church in the 16th and 17th centuries. The polyphonic texture in s. s.
is formed by the addition of a vocal line either above the basic chant,
or below it, but most frequently, both above and below, forming a
3-voiced texture; the basic melody is termed the put', the melody above
it -- the verkh, and the melody below -- the niz. There are also
examples of 4-part s. s., in which the fourth voice is called the
demestvo. In the history of Russian church singing, two basic types of
s. s. developed: (1) znamenny polyphony, in which the movement of the
voices basically follows the put', and (2) demestvenny polyphony, in
which the voices have greater independence and variety of movement than
in znamenny polyphony.
God-Bearer) the term used by the Orthodox Church for
the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Jesus Christ
Theotokia) a hymn in honor of the Theotokos that
usually concludes a cycle of stichera or troparia. There are several
categories of t.: resurrectional theotokia, which are sung after
"Glory...now and ever" at the end of the stichera aposticha; theotokia
dogmatica, which are sung after "Both now and ever" at the end of the
stichera at "Lord, I call" and contain dogmatic teaching concerning the
incarnation and dual nature of Christ; and dismissal theotokia, daily
and resurrectional, sung at the end of the dismissal troparia at the
end of Vespers and at Matins after "The Lord is God."
Tone a term that
refers to either the sum total of melodic formulae (popevki) performed
within a particular trichord or tetrachord of the ecclesiatical gamut
(scale), or to a characteristic pattern of melodic phrases, within the
framework of which a given church hymn is performed. The system of
Orthodox church singing has eight such groupings, which form the system
of Eight Tones.
incomplete kanon, which consists of three odes. The odes of a t. are
based on the same 9 canticles of Scripture as those of a full kanon.
The t. always includes the 8th and 9th odes, but these are preceded by
one more ode: the 1st on Monday, the 2nd on Tuesday, the 3rd on
Wednesday, the 4th on Thursday, the 5th on Friday, and the 6th and 7th
on Saturday, forming a tetraodion. The t. are sung and read during the
weekdays of Lent at Matins, during the period from Easter to Pentecost
at Compline, and also during the pre-feasts of Christmas, Theophany,
the hymn "Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us,"
which is sung at Divine Liturgy before the reading of the Apostle and
Gospel. On certain feasts the T. is replaced by the verse "As many as
have been baptized into Christ..." or "Before Thy Cross we bow down, O
Master...." (2) the cycle of prayers that begins with the above words
and includes the prayer "O Most Holy Trinity, have mercy on us..." and
other brief sentences before the Lord's Prayer. In this form the T. is
read at all the services of the daily cycle: Vespers, Compline,
Nocturns, Matins, and Hours, as well as at the beginning of private
morning and evening prayers.
troparia) a term of Constantinopolitan origin
indicating a refrain (and thus the equivalent of the Palestinian
hypakoe and the Roman antiphon), in the form of a poetic composition,
as opposed to a Scriptural text. Originally, t. served as responses to
psalm verses sung by the chanter, i. e., as antiphons. This basic
function still holds today, but the term is commonly used with
reference to the following three types of t.: (1) dismissal troparia
(apolytikia, otpustitel'ny), i. e., resurrectional troparia, troparia
of the feast, troparia of the day -- hymns that keynote the main theme
of the occasion being celebrated on a given day, first sung before the
dismissal at Vespers and then repeated throughout the services of the
day -- at Matins, Compline, Hours, and at the Divine Liturgy after the
little entrance; (2) troparia evlogitaria -- sets of several t., each
preceded by the refrain "Blessed art Thou, O Lord," sung at
ResurrectionalMatins after the 17th Kathisma and at the Matins of Holy
Saturday; and (3) troparia of the kanon -- brief verses that follow the
heirmos in each ode of the kanon. The verses read at the Matins of Holy
Saturday with the verses of Psalm 118  are also called t.
Twelve Great Feasts
after the Pasch (the "feast of feasts") the most important feasts of
the Orthodox liturgical year. The t. g. f. are divided into movable
feasts: the Entrance of the Lord into Jerusalem (the Sunday before the
Pasch), the Ascension of the Lord (40 days after the Pasch), and
Pentecost (the Descent of the Holy Spirit) (50 days after the Pasch);
and immovable feasts: the Nativity of the Theotokos (8/21 Sept.), the
Elevation of the Cross (14/27 Sept.), the Entrance of the Theotokos
into the Temple (21 Nov./4 Dec.), the Nativity of Christ (25 Dec./Jan.
7), the Theophany (the Baptism of Christ) (6/19 Jan.), the Meeting of
the Lord in the Temple (2/15 Feb.), the Annunciation (25 Mar./7 April),
the Transfigurguration (6/19 Aug.); and the Dormition of the Theotokos
Typikon a book
that contains various rules of the monastic life, including
instructions for celebrating divine services in the Orthodox Church
throughout the entire year.
Ustav a special
type of handwriting used in ancient manuscripts, which consisted of
straight, angular characters, approximating printed ones
evening service of the Orthodox Catholic Church, which includes the
singing and reading of psalms, hymns, stichera, and troparia, as well
as litanies and various prayers (see also
festal Hymn to the Theotokos
Paschal midnight service
Znamenny Chant one
of the basic types of liturgical chant in the Russian Church from the
time of its founding. Initially z. c. was monophonic, performed in
unison; beginning with the mid-16th c. there is evidence for polyphonic
performance of z. c., although only one voice continued to be notated
in the MSS. The 17th c. saw the appearance of notated znamenny
polyphony, in 2, 3, and 4 parts, written in score format in znamenny
notation. In terms of melodic structure, z. c. is comprised of melodic
formulae (popevki) -- kokizy, litsa, and fity -- which are organized
according to Eight Tones.
Znamenny Notation (Stolp Notation,
Neumatic Notation) one of the basic chant notations
used in the Russian Orthodox Church from the time of its origins. While
in its initial form it was borrowed from Byzantium, z. n. underwent an
evolutionary process in Ancient Rus', and towards the 15th-16th
centuries lost its connection with Byzantine notations. Z. n. is
ideographic in nature, i. e., it expresses the movement of the melody
in terms of symbolic signs (znamyona, kriuki -- neumes) the meaning of
which must be known to the singer in advance. In the course of the 17th
c., z. n. was gradually displaced by square notation in the official
Russian Orthodox Church, but continued to be used by the Old Ritualists.
is (c) 2004 P.S.A.L.M. See